Sastra Caksusa

seeing through the eyes of scriptures

Chapter 11: The Universal Form
TEXT 1
arjuna uvaca
mad-anugrahaya paramam
guhyam adhyatma-samjnitam
yat tvayoktam cows tena
moho 'yam vigato mama
SYNONYMS
arjunah uvaca—Arjuna said; mat-anugrahaya—just to show me favor; paramam—supreme; guhyam—confidential; adhyatma—spiritual; samjnitam—in the matter of; yat—what; tvaya—by You; uktam—said; vacah—words; tena—by that; mohah—illusion; ayam—this; vigatah—is educated; mama—my.
TRANSLATION
Arjuna said: I have heard Your instruction on confidential spiritual matters which You have so kindly delivered unto me, and my illusion is now dispelled.


PURPORT
This chapter reveals Krsna as the cause of all causes. He is even the cause of the Maha-Visnu, and from Him the material universes emanate. Krsna is not an incarnation; He is the source of all incarnations. That has been completely explained in the last chapter.
Now, as far as Arjuna is concerned, he says that his illusion is over. This means that Arjuna no longer thinks of Krsna as a mere human being, as a friend of his, but as the source of everything. Arjuna is very enlightened and is glad that he has a great friend like Krsna, but now he is thinking that although he may accept Krsna as the source of everything, others may not. So in order to establish Krsna's divinity for all, he is requesting Krsna in this chapter to show His universal form. Actually when one sees the universal form of Krsna one becomes frightened, like Arjuna, but Krsna is so kind that after showing it He converts Himself again into His original form. Arjuna agrees to what Krsna says several times. Krsna is speaking to him just for his benefit, and Arjuna acknowledges that all this is happening to him by Krsna's grace. He is now convinced that Krsna is the cause of all causes and is present in everyone's heart as the Supersoul.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
In the eleventh chapter, Arjuna, seeing the universal form, praises it in reverence. When Krsna shows himself again, Arjuna becomes pleased.
At the end of the last chapter, hearing about one arhsa of his dear friend, the adipurusa who is the shelter of all the vibhutis, with the words vistabhyaham idam krtsnam ekamsena sthito jagat, Arjuna became submerged in the highest bliss and desired to see that form. He praises what the Lord has just spoken in three verses.
“The words spoken by you giving indications of vibhutis, and concerned with the self (adhyatma) have removed my ignorance concerning your powers (mohah).”
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
11.1 Arjuna said — To show favour to me, who is deluded by the misconception that the body is the self, these words of supreme mystery concerned with the self, i.e., which is a proper description of the self, have been spoken by You in words beginning from ‘There was never a time when I did not exist’ (2.12) and ending with, ‘Therefore, O Arjuna, become a Yogin’ (6.46). By that this delusion of mine about the self is entirely removed.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The Supreme Lord Krishna out of extreme compassion revealed His prominent vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence in the previous chapter. Now in this chapter His compassion is extended even further and being eagerly requested by Arjuna He reveals His universal form. At the end of the last chapter Lord Krishna reveals that He pervades and supports the whole creation of everything cognisant and non-cognisant with just a fraction of His potency. Thus the universal form has been hinted at. Although so many topics were of an esoteric and secretive nature, to alleviate His devotees despair and delusion Lord Krishna gently corrected all erroneous conceptions and confirmed the reality that the soul is eternal and everyone and everything is irrevocably following the will of the Supreme Lord in all respects. Arjuna is acknowledging that he understands these things throughly.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Sri Madhvacharya did not comment on this sloka.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
For the purpose of germinating and increasing bhakti or exclusive loving devotional service the Supreme Lord Krishna in chapter ten spoke of His vibhuti or divine transcendental opulence and at its end in verse 42 He alluded to His visvarupa or divine universal form with the words eka-amsena referring to a fractional expansion of Himself. Beginning with chapter 2, verse 12 na tv evaham jatu nasam meaning: Never was there a time when Lord Krishna did no exist. Continuing on to chapter 4, verse 46 yogam atisthottistha meaning: become a yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. In the first four verses of this chapter Arjuna begins by gratefully acknowledging the great compassion of Lord Krishna to reveal such supremely confidential knowledge regarding the eternality of the ?tma or eternal soul in comparison to the temporary, perishable state of the physical body and then affirms that now his delusion has been dispelled and the infatuation felt due to a sense of ego for the body and mind has been eradicated because it is an absolute truth that the soul is never the performer of any action.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
11.1 Arjuna said — To show favour to me, who is deluded by the misconception that the body is the self, these words of supreme mystery concerned with the self, i.e., which is a proper description of the self, have been spoken by You in words beginning from ‘There was never a time when I did not exist’ (2.12) and ending with, ‘Therefore, O Arjuna, become a Yogin’ (6.46). By that this delusion of mine about the self is entirely removed.

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