Sastra Caksusa

seeing through the eyes of scriptures

Text 16
nasato vidyate bhavo nabhavo vidyate satah ubhayor api drsto ’ntas tv anayos tattva-darshibhih
Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent [the material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have concluded by studying the nature of both.
Commentary by Srila Prabhupada
There is no endurance of the changing body. That the body is changing every moment by the actions and reactions of the different cells is admitted by modern medical science; and thus growth and old age are taking place in the body. But the spirit soul exists permanently, remaining the same despite all changes of the body and the mind. That is the difference between matter and spirit. By nature, the body is ever changing, and the soul is eternal. This conclusion is established by all classes of seers of the truth, both impersonalist and personalist. In the Vishnu Purana (2.12.38) it is stated that Vishnu and His abodes all have self-illuminated spiritual existence (jyotimsi vishnur bhuvanani vishnuh). The words existent and nonexistent refer only to spirit and matter. That is the version of all seers of truth.
This is the beginning of the instruction by the Lord to the living entities who are bewildered by the influence of ignorance. Removal of ignorance involves the reestablishment of the eternal relationship between the worshiper and the worshipable and the consequent understanding of the difference between the part-and-parcel living entities and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One can understand the nature of the Supreme by thorough study of oneself, the difference between oneself and the Supreme being understood as the relationship between the part and the whole. In the Vedanta-sutras, as well as in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Supreme has been accepted as the origin of all emanations. Such emanations are experienced by superior and inferior natural sequences. The living entities belong to the superior nature, as it will be revealed in the Seventh Chapter. Although there is no difference between the energy and the energetic, the energetic is accepted as the Supreme, and energy or nature is accepted as the subordinate. The living entities, therefore, are always subordinate to the Supreme Lord, as in the case of the master and the servant, or the teacher and the taught. Such clear knowledge is impossible to understand under the spell of ignorance, and to drive away such ignorance the Lord teaches the Bhagavad-gita for the enlightenment of all living entities for all time.
Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur
This verse describes the results for those who have attained the level of discrimination. Actually as sruti says, the soul is not attached to matter: asango hi ayam purusah. (Brhad Aranyaka Upanisad 4.3.15) Thus, the jiva does not have a relationship with the subtle or gross bodies and its products such as lamentation and bewilderment. This relationship is caused by ignorance. This is explained in this verse.
There is no existence (bhavah) of the body (asatah), the shelter of lamentation and bewilderment, because of its opposite nature to the soul, in which these do not exist. And there is no destruction of the jiva with its real form (satah). The conclusion (antah) about both of these—the body and the soul - is seen by the seers of truth. By this, there will be no lamentation or bewilderment arising from seeing body and things related to the body because of the eternal, indestructible soul in Bhisma and others of the opposing party as well as you and your allies. How can Bhisma and others be destroyed, and why do you lament for them?
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Sridhara Swami's Commentary
It may be submitted that the objects of the sense like excessive heat and cold are extremely difficult to endure. Sometimes it is seen that exposure to elements like heat and cold can even cause the destruction of the body. In answer to this to convey that it is possible to endure anything with the correct discrimination of the truth the Supreme Lord states this verse. The unreal being of the nature of the impermanent is not reality having no existence in the self. The real of the nature of the eternal has no destruction being always existent. Thus the conclusion about both of these the real and the unreal has been determined. By whom? As the verse states by the knoweres of the Ultimate Truth who understand the true nature of things. So the conclusion is that by such discrimination one must learn to tolerate and endure them.
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Madhvacarya's Commentary
The soul is eternal as verified in the Vedas. Why is the soul eternal? Is there anything else eternal as well? Hence it is stated in the verse beginning nasato vidyate. There is no annihilation of a-sat meaning prakriti which is the material substratum or sat referring to the Ultimate Truth because it is declared in the Visnu Purana that prakriti, purusa and kala or time are eternal. Because the word vidyate has been seperately used in relation to sat and a-sat and because it has been said in Srimad Bhagavatam also known as Bhagavat Purana that a-sat is the physical manifestation and sat is of the subtle form the Ultimate Truth of reality, a-sat is known as manifestation of sat, the unmanifest. This understanding for both a-sat and sat and is confirmed by the word anta meaning summation.
Now begins the summation.
The actual sorrow expressed by Arjuna is not being felt because the consequences of war lead to misery in the next life. The rule in the material existence is that every action has its corresponding and equal reaction, thus it is seen that by unrighteous actions there is no happiness and by righteous actions there can be no unhappiness. The words referring to sat bhavah are all connected to happiness and the words connected to a- sat abhava are those which are connected to sorrow.
Thus it is stated in Shabda Nirnaya that sat bhava is sadhu bhava, having meritorious disposition and we will see this word used again further in the Gita. Therefore for whatever is in righteousness the word sat is used. Whoever has thought they have become a-sat, asat brahmeti, for this person their personal conceptions have become a-sat and consequently they become sorrowful.
It should not be misconstrued that the purpose of this verse is to deny the existence of what is appearing now in the present, was non-existing before creation and would be non-existent after destruction. This would be a contradiction in itself. The statement nasato vidyate bhavo is specifically used to emphasise a spiritual truth. Although in normal everyday life people relate to the material manifestation as if it did not exist before and will also cease to exist hereafter. For example a flower to be offered to the Lord which blossomed today, did not exist last week and by next week it will have ceased to exist but still it is utilised while it is here. So there is no reason to reflect that any of this is due to delusion.
Thus it is stated in the Brahma Tarka :
All acts prior to creation and all acts after the dissolution of creation cease to exist is the Vedic statement. If in each action the specific form was not manifest before it was born but came to be formed only later, then wisdom and normal circumstances would not justify such a statement. If according to wisdom and normal circumstances an archetype existed before the form came to exist then before anything is born it did not, in fact exist. Even due to the experiences of modification there is action and its result. Because of these modifications the experiences of the physical body become apparent. Normal affairs in this world take place on the basis of these modifications and the experience connected with these modifications solely.
It is not correct to accept that this world is made up of special attributes such as sat the Ultimate Truth due to its perception of modification and a-sat as the physical manifestation by its being self evident. Both the experiences are subjected to delusion. The physical manifestation is spoken as such because it is evident not because it is understood. If it is non-existent then its knowledge is without purpose even if it is non-manifesting.
A falsehood can never be validated by another falsehood. In delusion the false appearing as truth can never be accepted as real. In normal life the unreal cannot cease to be in any case. That which exists as its form may also appear as real and the same is the case with delusion.
Even though it is indescribable, when what is real appears as truth verily such appearance of truth cannot be accepted as false on the assumption that it is delusion. Thus the truth which appears as unreal should also be accepted then there is no contradiction.
In the Vedic scriptures it is stated the cosmic manifestation is truth. What is created is the truth. The sages and rishi’s who contemplating deeply describe the Ultimate Truth as Self evolved and Self evident and by such words declare the eternal existence of all things created.
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Ramanuja's Commentary
That which is known to be asat or material cannot be made to be sat or spiritual and that which is sat or spiritual annot be made to be asator material. To those established in truth, the ultimate nature of both are matters discerned by the direct perception of observation.
The literal meaning of anta is end. Here it means the summation or conclusion of the essential natures of sat and asat. The authoritative conclusion arrived at by elevated sages in this matter is that the nature of the physical body is asat being temporary and that the nature of the spiritual soul is sat being eternal. That which is asat is therefore known by its perishable nature and that which is sat is known by its imperishable nature. Hence it is clear that what is indicated by satva and asatvaare the soul and the body.
In the Visnu Purana the reverend sage Parasara states: knowledge of the atma or soul is indeed satyam or truth and everything else is that which is not truth. That which is imperishable is that which is the highest truth. But that which is derived by means of perishable things is undoubtedly perishable as well.
The context here has no connection or reference to what is known as satkarya-vada of the Sankhya philosophy which vaguely states: what is not cannot come to be and what is cannot cease to be.For in this context the Supreme Lord Krishna is specifically instructing Arjuna to dispel his delusion, due to not correctly understanding the difference between the perishable nature of the body and the imperishable nature of the soul. It was in order to emphasise this that the previous verse Chapter 2, verse 2 was spoken and it is to further elaborate this subject that the subsequent two verses are revealed. But how is it that the souls imperishable nature is known? The next verse states this.
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary
It is seen that one feels extreme discomfort due to bodily experiences of excessive heat and cold and the like; if this is the case then what is the experience for one who remains unconscious of the soul even unto the moment of a very painful demise. How can they realize that heat, cold and pain to be impermanent and how can they imagine the eternal reality of the souls immortality. Such questions and bewilderment is clarified by Lord Krishna with the words in the impermanent like heat, cold, pleasure and pain there is no duration and in the permanent as the eternal soul there is no cessation. It must be understood that this nature of the duration and cessation of things in this world cannot be ascertained by one lacking spiritual intelligence. Lord Krishna emphasizes the point that the reality of the duration and cessation in the material existence has been perceived by those elevated souls who have attained the Ultimate Truth. The eternal reality of the souls immortality is revealed in various places in the Vedic scriptures and this has been realized by those who have achieved this understanding.

"Any Understanding Of God"

75/02/16 Mexico City, Bhagavad-gita 2.16
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Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
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Prabhupada: (translated into Spanish throughout by Hrdayananda)
nasato vidyate bhavo nabhavo vidyate satah ubhayor api drsto 'ntas tv anayos tattva-darsibhih [Bg. 2.16]
So we are discussing about the soul and the body for the last four days. Now it is being concluded..., not concluded, further informed that tattva-darsibhih. Tattva means the Absolute Truth. They are called tattva-darsi. The tattva means the Absolute Truth, the spirit whole. The spirit whole is realized in three features. That is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam: [SB 1.2.11] "Those who are actually realized of the Absolute Truth, they say that the Absolute Truth is realized in three features." The brahmeti, bhagavan iti..., brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate: [SB 1.2.11] "Absolute Truth is realized in three features: Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan." Brahman is the impersonal feature, Paramatma is the localized feature, and Bhagavan is the personal feature.
So in the first stage... Just like the example we have given many times that the sunshine, sun globe and the sun-god. We are, every one of us, experienced what is sunshine. That means the sun, the sunshine and sun globe..., sun globe, the sunshine and sun-god, although it is one, the sunshine portion we can easily understand. But nobody of us has gone to the sun globe. Therefore there cannot be any direct perception of the sun globe. Rather, if we attempt to go to the sun globe, on the way we shall be finished. But the sun globe is not different from the sunshine. And still, the sunshine is not the sun globe. Being in the sunshine, you cannot say that you have seen the sun globe. You can simply understand that it is of the same quality, namely, as the sunshine has light and heat, the sun globe has also light and heat. So although the quality is the same, the quantity is different. The temperature in the sun globe is very, very high. Similarly, tattva, the Absolute Truth, the first realization is impersonal Brahman. That can be realized by ordinary man. Not ordinary man, a little advanced can understand what is the sunshine. But to have experience of the sunshine, we can put some theories, but directly it cannot be experienced. So again, within the sun globe there is the predominating deity, sun-god. Actually the heat and light is coming from the body of the sun-god. So those who are expert in studying the sun, the sun-god, the sun globe and the sunshine -- this is an example -- similarly, there is possibility of understanding God, His Paramatma feature, all-pervading feature, as well as His Brahman feature.
So here it is said that na asatah vidyate bhavah. Asatah means that which does not exist forever. Just like our this body. It will not exist forever. Everyone knows it. Everyone knows that this body will be finished. And to finish the body... Suppose if somebody comes immediately with some weapon and if he says, "I shall finish your body," so immediately we shall be facing some danger. But it is known to us that this body will be finished. That means the danger is ahead. I may meet the danger... Today or tomorrow or hundred years after, the danger is awaiting. So what we are going to stop the danger? That is intelligence. A cat and dog, an animal, cannot protect them from the danger of death. But a human being, they also try to... Animals they also try to save themself from danger, but they cannot do very nicely, but a human being tries and can stop. So every intelligent person should know that "The danger is there. I do not want that danger. Then how to stop it?" That is intelligence. So if we do not try to stop the danger, then we are not better than the animal.
So if you want to stop the danger of death, then you have to understand what is that Absolute Truth. Just like I have given already the example of sunshine. If you come to the sunshine, there is no darkness. But if you keep yourself within closed door, do not like to see the sunshine, that is your own choice. So everyone should try to come to the light. That is Vedic injunction, tamaso ma jyotir gamaya, means "Do not remain in darkness, come to the light." Light means knowledge, and darkness means ignorance. So every one of us now in the ignorance that we do not know "What I am." Everyone is in darkness in the concept of body. Ask anyone what you are. He will say, "I am this body. I am Mr. Such and such." "I am Indian." "I am American." This is all bodily description. And we have already discussed. This body is temporary, but I, the spirit soul, I am permanent. I have already experienced that I had my childhood body, I had my babyhood body, I had my boyhood body, youthhood body, I know it, but the bodies are no more existing, but I am existing. So therefore I am permanent, and the body is nonpermanent. Therefore it is said, nasato vidyate bhavah: "Permanency is not there in the body." Nabhavo vidyate satah: "And there is no annihilation of the permanent or the eternal."
So this is... Krsna, although He is the authority, still, He says that ubhayor api drstah antah tu anayos tattva-darsibhih. He says, "All the tattva-darsi, the knower of the Absolute Truth, they know it very well, and they have decided like that." The purpose is that we have to accept the experience of the tattva-darsi, of the seer of the Absolute Truth. That is knowledge. Our knowledge is imperfect because our senses are imperfect. Therefore we do not come to the right knowledge by exercising our senses. The idea is that we should accept the statement of Krsna and the sastra that we or I or you, we are spirit soul; we are permanent. And the body is not permanent. But we should be intelligent enough -- how we can get the condition of permanence. That is possible when you or I, we come to the platform of eternity. That is explained in another place of Srimad Bhagavad-gita, bahavo jnana-tapasa puta mad-bhavam agatah, like that. Means that "Many persons, by cultivating knowledge and tapasya, jnana-tapasa, putah, became purified. They have got the same status like Me." The same status means God is eternal, God is full of knowledge and God is full of bliss.
So we are all part and parcel of God. We are part and parcel of God; therefore we have got the same quality just like a particle of gold has got the same quality as the big gold, and the small drop of sea water has got the same chemical composition as the large mass water. That God is sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah [Bs. 5.1], eternal, full of bliss and knowledge. We can also attain that stage by purifying ourself. That purificatory process is stated as jnana-tapasa, means knowledge and austerity. We can come to the real knowledge of our existence by purifying ourself. The purificatory process we are introducing by this Krsna consciousness movement. And the method is very simple: chanting Hare Krsna mantra. The more you chant this maha-mantra, or the transcendental vibration Hare Krsna, you become purified. Then you can understand what you are. Then every one of us, we can understand that "I am not this body. I am not American. I am not Indian. I am not Mexican. I am spirit soul." This stage is called brahma-bhutah, means self-realization. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, brahma-bhutah prasannatma [Bg. 18.54], means as soon as you are self-realized, you become jubilant. In the bodily concept of life we are always full of anxiety and morose. Yes, that is the material condition. But as soon as you realize yourself that you are not this body, you are different from this body, you become jubilant. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma [Bg. 18.54]. This means as soon as one is self-realized, immediately he becomes happy, jubilant. And what is the symptom of becoming jubilant? That is also stated, na socati na kanksati: "He does not hanker after anything; neither he laments for any loss." In the material condition we are in the platform of lamentation and hankering. Everyone is trying to possess something which he does not possess, and everyone is lamenting after losing his possession. These are the condition of the materialistic person.
So Brahman realization or self-realization means no longer lamentation, no longer hankering. Then next stage is samah sarvesu bhutesu, means then he becomes equal to everyone. He does not treat differently to different living entities. Because he can see the spirit soul in everyone, he sees everyone on the same equal position. This stage is called the bona fide stage for devotional service. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gita,
brahma-bhutah prasannatma na socati na kanksati samah sarvesu bhutesu mad-bhaktim labhate param [Bg. 18.54]
That is our perfectional stage. Mad-bhaktim labhate param means to be engaged in the loving service of God. So for cultivating knowledge, we are opening so many centers. You can take advantage and cultivate knowledge. Jnana-tapasa. And practice little austerity. Get the knowledge. Just like we are discussing in this meeting. It is meant for acquiring knowledge. So we hold meeting at least twice, thrice in every center. So you can also participate and take the knowledge. And if you practice little austerity, then -- two things, jnana-tapasa -- you become purified. And as soon as you are purified, you understand what you are, and what is God, and what is your relationship with God. And as soon as you know these three things your life is perfect.
Thank you very much. Now you can ask questions.
Hrdayananda: (translating) How can anyone in any part of the world understand that he is part of God?
Prabhupada: Have you got any understanding of God? Do you know what is God?
Mexican: Yes.
Prabhupada: What is that?
Hrdayananda: (translating) It is the essence. He calls it some big thing, the essence.
Prabhupada: "Some." That means he has to clear idea. You do not know what is God clearly. You say, "Some, this, that." That is not clear idea. So how you can understand the part and parcel of God if you do not know what is God? How you can understand what is part and parcel of God?
Hrdayananda: He's saying that God is love, and therefore we should love each other.
Prabhupada: So that we are preaching, that we are... Samah sarvesu bhutesu, see everyone on the equal level and love.
Mexican: Thank you.
Prabhupada: That's all.
Hrdayananda: [break] (translating) ...happens after death, where do we pick up?
Prabhupada: That we have explained that you have to accept another body. And there are 8,400,000 different forms of body. And you will be awarded one of the bodies out of the 8,400,000. The body is awarded according to your karma or action. We are acting in three modes of material nature. Some of them are acting in goodness, some of them are acting in passion, and some of them are acting in ignorance. So there are three different modes of activities. Now, when you mix up three, three into three, it becomes nine. And again if you multiply nine by nine, it becomes eighty-one. So it increases in so subtle division of the mixture of the three qualities. Just like the painter. He knows how to mix the three original color, namely blue, yellow and red. The red color represents passion, and the yellow color represents ignorance, and the blue color represents goodness. So as the color painter, er, painter knows how to mix and make varieties of colors, similarly, the three modes of material nature being mixed up, they are represented in so many different forms of body. So at the present moment, in your human form of body, you are also mixing the same qualities in your different desires. That means you are creating your next body. So at the time of death the thoughts and the activities which will be prominent within your mind, you will get a similar body in next life. Therefore the intelligent man should be very cautious to get the next body. We can get the body like God; we can get the body like the dog. Therefore the best intelligent person should try to endeavor to get the next body like God. That is Krsna consciousness movement, that you endeavor in this life so long you are alive to get a body like God. That will solve your all problems, namely birth, death, old age and disease. (someone speaks in Spanish) No, what he is speaking, first of all let...
Hrdayananda: (translating) What is the difference between God and ourselves and what is the relationship?
Prabhupada: God is great; we are small. Otherwise, we the same. God is also living entity; you are also living entity. God is eternal; you are also eternal. God is full of bliss; you are also full of bliss. So quality, there is no difference. Only difference in quantity. Just like a drop of sea water. It is salty. So this means in the drop there is salt. But the quantity of the salt in the drop is not equal to the quantity of the salt in the vast water. And there is another example. Just like the big fire and the sparks of the fire. The spark of the fire, when it falls on your cloth, a pointlike space it can burn. But the big fire can burn the whole building. So the quality of God is in every one of us. We may take as a small god, that's all. But the power is different. God can create a planet like the sun, which is floating in the air, and you can create a small airplane floating in the air. God can create a mosquito which has got the same construction like the aeroplane, but you cannot do it. That is the difference between God and you. You can create; He can create. But His creation and your creation is not equal. Who put this question, "What is the difference between God and us?" You put? What did you...?
Girl: Well, I think that since there is..., that what is the relation between you...
Prabhupada: That you can understand. What is the relation between big and small? The big is the master, and the small is the servant, that's all. If somebody is big, big merchant, big factory owner, you go to serve him. So that relation is very clear, that the master..., the big is the master, and the small is the servant. Therefore our business is to serve God. We are serving, but we are now serving dog. We are taking care of dog, not of God. This is our position. Because we are meant for service, so instead of giving service to God, we are giving service to dog. Therefore we are unhappy.
Hrdayananda: [break] (translating) After taking birth again, how does one continue his spiritual progress? They have two questions. And also when one is feeling very weak, fallen, how can he get going spiritually?
Prabhupada: First of all, the next body may not be for cultivating knowledge in spiritual life because we are already fallen, and if we do not elevate, we may accept another body, still fallen. Therefore the intelligent person in this human form of life should take to spiritual cultivation of knowledge immediately. Immediately means before another death takes place. Because death will take place -- that is certain -- so our duty is immediately take to cultivation of spiritual knowledge so that we may get next life either liberation or another opportunity for cultivating spiritual knowledge. So anyone who begins cultivation of spiritual knowledge, he is on the path of perfection, but even if he falls down immaturely, he is guaranteed to get next life a human body so that he can again begin his cultivation of spiritual knowledge and make his life perfect. Therefore the conclusion is that without delay, we should immediately take to spiritual life and try to make our life perfect. Because there is no certainty when our death is coming. That is real intelligence.
Hrdayananda: [break] (translating) How many births do we have?
Prabhupada: Births? There is no counting. Because unless you come to spiritual knowledge, the birth and death will continue. Yes?
Hrdayananda: (translating) Do we have to liberate ourselves from karma in order to achieve Krsna?
Prabhupada: Yes. The karma is the binding. So long our mind is karma conscious, then we have to take another body. Therefore bhakti is defined, anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam [Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.1.11]. Karma. People are very much enthusiastic to be engaged in karma, fruitive activities, and some of them are very eager to speculative knowledge. That is called jnana. Therefore bhakti is jnana-karmady-anavrtam [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. It must be uncovered by the speculative knowledge and fruitive activities. By karma, you are bound up to accept birth and death; by jnana, you can be liberated for the time being, but you again fall down; but by bhakti, you are firmly fixed up in your spiritual platform. [break]
Hrdayananda: (translating) Are there many universes, or only one?
Prabhupada: Innumerable, you cannot count. This is one of the universes, with so many planets, suns, moon. That is stated in the Vedic literature. Yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-anda means this universe. It is ball-like, anda, egglike. Jagad-anda-koti. Koti means millions. So all combined together, that is material world. This is only one-fourth part of the creation of God. And the three-fourth part is the spiritual world. [break]
Hrdayananda: (translating) What do we think of Jesus Christ, Mohammed, Buddha and other bogus persons and all these different messengers of God?
Prabhupada: They have got little advancement. Just like Mohammedans, they accept the kingdom of God, and the Buddhists, they say that this material world has to be finished. Buddhists do not give any information of the spiritual world, but they do not like this material world; they want to finish it. So every religious principle is preached according to the candidate, place and time. So if one surpasses these stages, then he can come to the higher stages of spiritual understanding.
Hrdayananda: [break] (translating) ...take that maybe religion is simply imagination or a big business.
Prabhupada: Yes, if there is no right information, it is something like that. [break] We should try to understand what is religion. Religion means the law of God. Just like law means the rulings given by the state, that is law, similarly, religion means the rulings given by God. But if one does not know what is God, then how he can accept what is His ruling? Therefore anyone who has got very scanty knowledge of God, that kind of religion is also scanty. That is the definition in the Vedic literature. Dharmam tu saksad bhagavat-pranitam: [SB 6.3.19] "Dharma, or religion, means the codes or the law given by God." And the Bhagavad-gita, the same ruling is given, law, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: [Bg. 18.66] "You give up all types of man-made religion; you simply surrender unto Me." Therefore the conclusion is religion means to surrender to God. So one who is fully surrendered to God, he is religionist. (end)
>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 2.16 -- Mexico City, February 16, 1975

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