Sastra Caksusa

seeing through the eyes of scriptures

Text 37-38

yady apy ete na pasyanti
lobhopahata-cetasah
kula-ksaya-kritam dosam
mitra-drohe ca patakam

katham na jneyam asmabhih
papad asman nivartitum
kula-ksaya-kritam dosam
prapasyadbhir janardana

Translation

O Janardana, although these men, their hearts overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing one’s family or quarreling with friends, why should we, who can see the crime in destroying a family, engage in these acts of sin? 

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada 

A kshatriya is not supposed to refuse to battle or gamble when he is so invited by some rival party. Under such an obligation, Arjuna could not refuse to fight, because he had been challenged by the party of Duryodhana. In this connection, Arjuna considered that the other party might be blind to the effects of such a challenge. Arjuna, however, could see the evil consequences and could not accept the challenge. Obligation is actually binding when the effect is good, but when the effect is otherwise, then no one can be bound. Considering all these pros and cons, Arjuna decided not to fight.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

"Why does the opposing side want to fight then?" He answers with this verse.

"They, overcome by greed, and do not see any fault in destroying the family, or any sin in killing friends."

 

Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Visnuswami

 

Sridhara Swami's Commentary

 

It may be argued to Arjuna that if he does not slay his enemies due to feeling compassion for them, then they out of greed for power they will surely slay him; therefore it would be better for him to slay them and enjoy sovereignty. This is answered in a verse and a half beginning with: I do not like etc. Even if they kill us I do not like to kill them even for attaining the sovereignty of all the three worlds much less for gaining only this earth.

The Vedic scriptures declare that those who commit the following six types of crimes being : arson, poisoning, assaulting with weapons, stealing ones wealth, usurping ones land or kidnapping one's wife are aggressors and Duryodhana and the Kauravas were definitely aggressors having committed all six offences against the Pandavas beginning with arson. The slaying of aggressors is justifiable and the Vedic scriptures state that one should slay an aggressor coming with the intention of committing a criminal act without hesitation and that the slayer of such an aggressor incurs no sin whatsoever. This is being answered by the verse and a half beginning with: sin alone etc. The text which states one should kill belongs to what is called an Artha Sastra which is a scripture dealing with the rules and laws regarding wealth. Artha Sastra is considered less authoritative than Dharma Sastra which are scriptures dealing with righteousness. Dharma Sastra is superior to Artha Sastra. As it is stated by the sage Yagnavalkya: when twoscriptures differ the one whose conclusion is the most reasonable and most logical is to be considered superior. This is the understanding. Therefore by the slaying of preceptors etc. although they are aggressors, Arjuna is stating that sin shall be incurred because such slaying is unwarranted and unrighteous. There can be no happiness from this. This is being given by: How can we adopt this course of action?

Although Duryodhana and the Kauravas being deprived of all discrimination are determined to fight; why should we who are not deprived of discrimination become degraded as well by such sinfulness? We should resolve not to engage in this battle.

It may be argued that the action of slaying kinsman is common to both the Pandavas and the Kauravas; so even as the Kauravas adopting such a contingency are determined to fight; it is better for Arjuna to likewise engage himself in the battle, what is the value of despondency? This is being answered by these two verses.

 

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Madhvacarya

 

Madhvacarya's Commentary

 

Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusana's.

If the question arises that although it is advisable for the Pandavas to engage in battle being challenged by their enemies the Kauravas because it is well known that a ksatriya can never decline a challenge to fight or to gamble. To answer this Arjuna speaks the verse beginning: yadyapy ete na pasyanti and the verse beginning katham na jneyam asmabhih. The reason for the Kauravas to be engaged in war is out of greed. Whereas we not having this desire of greed therefore have no desire for battle. One is engaged in karmic activities to fulfil ones desires; but only if no negativity is created and the action results in total happiness can it be considered righteousness.

It is also described in the codes of warfare that a Syen Yaga is prescribed for killing of ones enemies. Although it is true because the result of it will not give happiness to the family members of the deceased, it is unreasonable for us to be engaged in this battle. On the other hand the tradition of accepting a challenge by ksatriyas is applicable when there is no probability of destruction of the dynasty. Arjuna again addresses Lord Krishna again as Janardana, He who always naturally protects His devotees, Arjuna is intimating that since Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord and has appeared for the express purpose of removing all those opposed to righteousness on the Earth, He can just by His will destroy all the enemies effortlessly Himself.

 

 

 

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Ramanuja
There is no commentary for this verse.

 

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Nimbaditya

 

Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

 

Why are they trying to kill the Pandavas in the first place might now be asked? In this verse Arjuna is stating that the Kauravas their hearts full of greed, devoid of piety see no fault and perceive no sinful reaction in the slaying of family members and hence they act in ignorance. Now in support of his reason for not fighting Arjuna states that the Pandavas are not like the Kauravas because of knowing fully the sinful reaction of slaying kinsman. So why should they engage in this abominable act. Being a devotee of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the propounder of dharma or righteousness, Arjuna addresses him by the vocative Janardanameaning as the remover of his devotees ignorance; why should they not refrain themselves from such ignorance being cognizant of the implications of unrighteousness?

"The Way To Save Society"

 

73/07/27 London, Bhagavad-gita 1.37-39

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Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):



yady apy ete na pasyanti
lobhopahata-cetasah
kula-ksaya-krtam dosam
mitra-drohe ca patakam


katham na jneyam asmabhih
papad asman nivartitum
kula-ksaya-krtam dosam
prapasyadbhir janardana
 [Bg. 1.37-38]


Translation: "O Janardana, although these men, overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing one's family or quarreling with friends, why should we, with knowledge of the sin, engage in these acts?"

Prabhupada: So other party, Duryodhana's party, they were not considering all these pious or impious, sinful or vicious, activities. Because lobha-upahata-cetasah: "They have lost their sense on account of greediness for acquiring the empire." When one becomes lusty or overpowered by greediness, then he loses all intelligence. There are many places stated that. Kamais tais tair hrta-jnanah yajanti anya-devatah [Bg. 7.20]. Krsna says that "Those who are worshipers of other demigods..." Actually worshipful is the Supreme Lord Krsna. Others, they should be shown respect. But worship means for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is worshipful. Saranyam. He is to be taken shelter of; He is to be worshiped. That is being taught. That is religion. Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. Always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, worshiping Him, offering Him obeisances, that is Krsna consciousness movement. The Deity room offering obeisances, worshiping, chanting, dancing, always be engaged to offer respect and submission to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the duty of everyone. Because all living entities are by constitution eternal servant. That is their healthy position. So long they remain servant of the Supreme, that is healthy. Same example, I have given many times, that my part and parcel of the body, this finger, so long it is fit to give service to the body, it is healthy. If it cannot give service, then it is diseased. Similarly, all living entities who are not giving, rendering any service to the Lord, they are simply working for sense gratification, that is diseased condition. And in the diseased condition, nobody can be happy. That is not possible. If you have got some disease, you cannot be happy.
So that is the position. They cannot understand that by serving Krsna, we become healthy or in our normal position. This is called ignorance. Somebody is trying to forget Him, somebody is trying to become equal with Him. This business is going on. And nobody is submitting that "My Lord, I forgot my service. From this day, I become again Your servant. Please give me protection." Sarva-dharman parityajya mam... [Bg. 18.66]. This is the teaching of all sastra, all Vedas. But these people, the other party, they have become blind. They have become blind. Why? Lobha-upahata-cetasah. They have lost their sense. Kula-ksaya- krtam dosam. There is a great fault by destroying dynasty. Nowadays people are destroying from the womb, abortion, contraception, destroying. They do not know. Kula-ksaya. Actually putra. Putra means, put means pum-nama-narakam. There is a hell which is called pum-nama-naraka. And tra means trayate, deliver. So putra means pum-nama-narakat trayate iti putra. The Sanskrit word for son, putra means that the son is expected to deliver the forefathers from the hellish condition of life. Sometimes due to our sinful activities, we become ghost. That is very hellish condition. So when sraddha is offered by the putra..., who will offer? The putra will offer. That is the duty. Then he gets again material body. These are the subtle laws. People do not know. Neither they are eager to know. But these are the information we get from Vedic literature. Putra has got a duty, to save the forefathers. Therefore one has to, it is his duty to keep a putra. At least one son he must leave. But people are not very much anxious to have putra. Rather to kill putra. They are so sinful. Kama-lobha-hata-cetasah. Simply sense enjoyment. That's all. Why bharya? Why one should marry? Putrarthe kriyate bharya. Bharya means wife. One accepts a wife. Why? For a putra. For a son. Why son is required? Putrah pindam prayojanam. Offering oblations by the putra to deliver the forefathers. That is prayojanam, that is absolutely necessary. Each and every one should leave a putra before his death. He has got so many duties. This is Vedic civilization. But nobody now cares for that. Neither it is possible. Therefore the only remedy is to surrender. Saranyam.


devarsi-bhutapta-nrnam pitrnam
nayam rni na kinkara(s ca) rajan
sarvatmana ye saranam saranyam
gato mukundam parihrtya kartum
 [SB 11.5.41]


The one excuse is that every one of us, we are indebted to devarsi, devata, the demigods. The demigods. Just like Indra. He supplies us water. Just like we are obliged to pay tax to the water department, to the fire department, to the education department, so many departments government. Or once we pay our income tax, that is distributed to so many departments. So actually why we pay? Because we are indebted. Now, the sunshine, we are getting advantage of sunshine. So we are indebted to the sun-god. Similarly, we are indebted to the moon-god. We are receiving so much advantages. Varuna. Deva. So we are indebted to so many demigods. Similarly, we are indebted to the rsis. Just like Vyasadeva. He has given us this Vedic literature. We are taking advantage of it. So we must feel indebted. Deva rsi, rsi. First of all, we are indebted to the devatas, and then to the rsis, then the bhutas, ordinary living entities. Just like we are taking milk from the cow. We are indebted. "No, we are killing them." They are committing simply sinful life and they want to be happy and peaceful. Just see. We are indebted. I am obliged to you for your service. So instead of feeling obligation, if I cut your throat, how gentleman I am, just see, imagine. So we are indebted. Devarsi-bhutapta-nrnam pitrnam [SB 11.5.41]. And pitrnam, these pitr, kula-ksaya, forefathers. I have got this body... From my grandfather, my father has got this body; from my father, I have got this body. I am also indebted. Because this body, human body, is a chance for understanding, for my position. I can get out of the clutches of this maya of transmigrating from one body to another. So this opportunity I have got by the grace of my forefathers. These are feelings of obligation. And there is duty. Therefore Arjuna is considering so many things because he is devotee. Kula-ksaya-krtam dosam mitra-drohe ca patakam. "These rascals, they have become lost of their intelligence on account of greediness for acquiring the empire. But so far I am concerned," Arjuna said, katham na jneyam asmabhih. Plural number: "By us." "Us" means including Krsna. He is saying not "I" or "by me." He is including Krsna: "You are in this side; so because You are on my side, You are my charioteer, if I do not consider all these things, what people will say? That ‘Arjuna is such a great devotee of Krsna. And Krsna is there. He is committing such sinful activities.' " Therefore he says, katham na jneyam asmabhih. He is dragging Krsna also. That is right, yes. A saintly person, a devotee, should consider all these things, before acting, "Whether I am doing it property or improperly?" This is Arjuna. The other party, lobha-upahata-cetasah. Upahata-cetasah. They have lost their sense. But we cannot. A devotee must be very responsible. He must act in such a way that nobody can blame him. Otherwise everyone say, "What kind of devotee he is?" So this is the duty. They should be very cautious. A sannyasi, they should be very cautious. Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, sannyasira alpa-chidre bahu kari' mane. An ordinary grhastha, or... Grhastha only, If he talks with woman nobody will blame. He is grhastha. But if a sannyasi talks with woman very intimately, oh, immediately people will take note of it. Sannyasira alpa-chidre bahu kari' mane. That is the practice. He should be very cautious. So a devotee, a sannyasi, they have got very, very great responsibility. People will very easily criticize them. So Arjuna is considering all these points. Katham na jneyam asmabhih papad asman nivartitum. They may indulge in these sinful activities, how we can indulge? What people will say? Kula-ksaya-krtam dosam prapasyadbhir janardana. "He Janardana, You are maintainer of the people. So if the people become sinful, so it is very difficult to maintain them." These things are being considered. Kula-ksaya. So we cannot destroy family. But on one condition we can become free from all this obligation. What is that? Gatah sarabyam parihrtya kartum. Saranyam. Mukunda-caranam. One who has dedicated his life simply to serve Mukunda, Krsna, Mukunda. Muk means mukti, liberation. And ananda. Krsna gives liberation, His name is Govinda, Mukunda. Hundreds and thousands of names Krsna has got. So if one has taken, fully surrendering unto the lotus feet of Mukunda, he has no more any obligation, either these pitr, devarsi, deva, devata, demigod, rsi, bhuta. He is immune because he is transcendental. But so long one is not a devotee, one who is not fully surrendered to the lotus feet of Mukunda, he must have to follow all these regulative principles and duties. He cannot be released. Everything, account is kept. Prakrteh kriyamanani gunaih karmani sarvasah [Bg. 3.27]. Everything is noted down. Karmana daiva-netrena [SB 3.31.1]. According to his karma, he is going to get another body. These are the subtle laws. Therefore kula-ksaya-dosam. You cannot destroy your family. Materially, you cannot destroy your family. So Arjuna is speaking, kula-ksayam krtam dosam prapasyadbhir janardana. "We can see. These rascals, they have lost their intelligence, but when we see, how we can destroy the family?" So further explanation will be given next.

Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):


kula-ksaye pranasyanti
kula-dharmah sanatanah
dharme naste kulam krtsnam
adharmo 'bhibhavaty uta
 [Bg. 1.39]


Translation: "With the destruction of dynasty, the eternal family tradition is vanquished, and thus the rest of the family becomes involved in irreligious practice."

Prabhupada: So, so much responsibility is there, killing the family. Because they have no responsibility at the present moment, everyone irreligious. Two things are there: religion and irreligion. Krsna also says, yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati abhyutthanam adharmasya [Bg. 4.7]. If we cannot keep on religious principles, then... We have to do something. Then we have to enhance our irreligious principle. So this family tradition, according to Vedic civilization, was very strictly observed so that the family may be kept in order in religious principles. Why? Now, because the human life is meant for reviving his eternal position, sanatana. This word is used here. Kula-dharmah sanatanah. The real purpose of life, especially human life, is meant for reviving our sanatana-dharma, sanatana occupation, eternal occupation. By observing the rules and regulations of varnasrama-dharma, four varnas and four asramas..., that is called kula-dharma. Brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. Each one of them must strictly observe the rules and regulations of that particular asrama. Why it should be observed so strictly? Because by observing the regulative principle of each stages of life, one will be able to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


varnasramacarvata
purusena parah puman
visnur aradhyate (pantha)
nanyat tat-tosa-karanam


If we observe strictly the rules and regulations of kula-dharma... Kula-dharma means if you are a brahmana, you must observe the regulative principles, the qualitative principles of a brahmana. If you are in, a ksatriya, then you must also observe the ksatriya principles.

All these are described in the Bhagavad-gita, who is brahmana, who is ksatriya, by symptoms. By symptoms we have to accept whether one is brahmana or ksatriya or vaisya, not by birth. That is the injunction of the sastras. So this has to be observed. If we want actually deliverance from this material entanglement, so these rules and regulations of kula-dharma, we must observe. If we do not observe, then immediately we become irreligious. Dharme naste krtam krtsnam adharmam abhibhavati iti uta. Uta, Arjuna said, "It is said." He has learned from higher authorities. Uta, "it is said" means "said by authorities." So "If adharma, irreligious life, is propagated, on account of loss of kula-dharma, then everything is lost, my dear Krsna. So why shall I kill?" Other things also will be described later on, that the, when the male members are killed, the female members become widow, and they, their character becomes polluted. So many things Krsna will speak about this family life.

So at the present moment, there is no such family life, no consideration of religion, no consideration of irreligious life. Everything, just like animals. Kalau sudra-sambhavah. If not animals, they are all sudras, nobody brahmana, nobody ksatriya, nobody vaisya. So it is a chaotic condition of the human society. Therefore it cannot be revived to the original position of systematic institutional position. It is not possible. Everything is lost. Therefore by the Caitanya Mahaprabhu's grace, one thing:


harer nama harer nama
harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva
(nasty eva) gatir anyatha.
 [Cc. Adi 17.21]



Everything is lost. Now, simply by chanting harer nama, the holy name of Lord Krsna, you become again situated in the original position. Everything is adjusted because it is transcendental. So there is no other way. Caitanya Mahaprabhu is so merciful that from the sastras he has selected this process of sankirtana movement: ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam [Cc. Antya 20.12]. The human life is meant for extinguishing the blazing fire of material existence. But we are not in regulative principles. We have lost everything, our sanatana-kula-dharma, everything. Under the circumstances, Caitanya Mahaprabhu gives us the greatest facility according to sastra. That is the boon of this age: kirtanad eva krsnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet. Simply by chanting the holy name of Krsna, everyone becomes free from all contamination of this age, mukta-sangah, param vrajet. And he becomes so purified that he becomes fit to go back to home, back to Godhead. So this opportunity, chanting of Hare Krsna mantra, we should not miss. We should... We must. Where is the difficulty, Hare Krsna chanting? Kirtaniyah sada harih [Cc. Adi 17.31]. Trnad api sunicena taror api sahisnuna. This is the only savior for the human society of this age.


Thank you very much. Hare Krsna. (end)
 
>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 1.37-39 -- London, July 27, 1973 

Text 39

kula-ksaye pranasyanti
kula-dharmah sanatanah
dharme naste kulam krtsnam
adharmo ’bhibhavaty uta

Translation

With the destruction of dynasty, the eternal family tradition is vanquished, and thus the rest of the family becomes involved in irreligion. 

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada 

In the system of the varnashrama institution there are many principles of religious traditions to help members of the family grow properly and attain spiritual values. The elder members are responsible for such purifying processes in the family, beginning from birth to death. But on the death of the elder members, such family traditions of purification may stop, and the remaining younger family members may develop irreligious habits and thereby lose their chance for spiritual salvation. Therefore, for no purpose should the elder members of the family be slain.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

The right conduct maintained by the family which has passed down from many generations (sanatanah kula dharmah) will be destroyed with the destruction of the family (kula ksaye).

Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Visnuswami

 

Sridhara Swami's Commentary

 

When the spiritual traditions and spiritual values are destroyed in society, unrighteousness predominates and the surviving family members become degraded.

 

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Madhvacarya

 

Madhvacarya's Commentary

 

Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusana's.

Now the evil consequences of war are described in detail with this verse beginning kula-ksaye pranasyanti. The compound word kula-dharmahmeaning the righteous family traditions prescribed in Vedic rites such as the fire ceremonyagnihotra and others of this nature due to the destruction of the dynasty causes a lack of qualified family members knowledgeable enough to have them performed. When dharma or righteousness is absent then adharma unrighteousness appears apprehending the remaining dependants along with the whole family destroying the foundations of society.

 

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Ramanuja
There is no commentary for this verse.

 

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:

 


Nimbaditya

 

Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

 

Some may ponder just what sin is Arjuna describing and this is now revealed in this verse. In a dynasty it is the father that is the foundation of the family. He insures that the tradition of the members is maintained as well being the support of all the members. In times of war it is the father who goes to fight and sometimes the older sons who are the fathers of the future also go to war. If they are slain in battle it is understood that the family is effectively destroyed and righteousness along with the age- old family customs and Vedic traditions eventually cease to exist. The women and children not being properly protected, having lost the shelter of the father are thus overcome by the realities of basic survival and become victims of unrighteousness.


comments: everything is very clear I looked up defenition of artha sastra and found this interesting link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthashastra

 

Views: 155

Comment by Paramananda das on November 5, 2011 at 11:22pm

Here is arthasastra written by Chanakya Pandita:

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arthashastra

 

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